Categories
Health Information

Get Your Flu Shot Now

For some, getting a flu shot is just part of the fall routine every year. Immunization against the virus that causes influenza prevents millions of people from getting the disease, makes the disease less severe if you do get it, and can prevent death from severe disease and its complications. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), influenza causes an estimated 12,000 to 61,000 deaths every year in this country.

This year, because of the COVID-19 pandemic, physicians and public health officials say it’s even more important that everyone over the age of six months get a flu shot. This is especially important if you have an underlying health condition that makes you more at risk for developing complications if you get the flu. While the influenza vaccine will not prevent you from getting COVID-19 (researchers are still working on a vaccine for this different virus), it will help you avoid getting seriously sick with or—heaven forbid—dying from the flu. And the fewer people who get the flu, the more it saves healthcare resources that are still urgently needed for treating COVID-19 patients.

Those who are at high risk for flu complications are also at greater risk for getting COVID-19 and having serious outcomes. If you have an autoimmune condition or immune deficiency disease, such as myositis, myasthenia gravis, pemphigus and pemphigoid, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and primary immunodeficiency (PI), this means you. You are at a much greater risk for getting sick with the flu and at greater risk for developing complications like pneumonia if you do. If you have heart disease, cancer, or diabetes, getting the flu can also make these conditions worse.

Getting the flu vaccine, however, is not a straightforward decision for some who have these conditions. For example, some people with a history of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) may have developed this form of muscle paralysis after receiving an influenza immunization. According to the GBS|CIDP Foundation International, the association between GBS and flu vaccines is inconclusive, but they suggest these individuals avoid the vaccine in the future. If you have had GBS, especially if it developed four to six weeks after getting a flu shot, you should talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of getting the vaccine again.

Another consideration is the aerosol form of the flu vaccine. This is a live attenuated (weakened) influenza vaccine that is given through the nose. While the injected vaccines are made with inactivated virus, the nasal spray is made with live organisms that have been weakened but are still able to activate the body’s immune response against the disease.

The intranasal vaccine is not recommended for those younger than two, older than 50, or those who have a weakened immune system, including some patients who take immune suppressing medications. If you care for or live with someone who is immune compromised, you should also avoid the nasal spray. And if you have an underlying medical condition that puts you at risk for developing severe complications from the flu (such as chronic lung disease, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disorders, neurologic and neuromuscular disorders, blood disorders, and diabetes), it’s important to check with your physician before taking the nasal flu vaccine.

According to the Immune Deficiency Foundation, those with certain forms of immune deficiency (common variable immune deficiency [CVID], severe combined immune deficiency [SCID] or Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia) are unable to develop protective immunity following vaccination. This means their bodies don’t have the infrastructure to develop the immunity needed to keep them from getting sick, so vaccines will not do them any good. In fact, for individuals with these forms of PI, live vaccines—including the influenza nasal spray—may put them in danger of developing severe disease.

The only reason not to get a flu shot is if you have a severe, life-threatening allergy to the vaccine or any of its ingredients. This might include gelatin, certain antibiotics, or other ingredients. If you get hives when you eat eggs, studies have shown that most times you can still get the flu shot. If you have a more serious reaction to eggs or you are worried about this, you should of course talk with your doctor. Egg-free alternative vaccines are available.

The CDC has more information about seasonal influenza and how to prevent it.

Categories
Health Information Patient communities

Choices: IVIG versus SCIG

Many patients with autoimmune disorders and primary immune deficiency diseases depend on regular infusions of immune globulin (IG) to keep them healthy. For most of the nearly four decades since immune globulin therapies have been available, patients have had only one viable option for how this treatment was given. It was only available as an intravenous (IV) infusion.

Since 2006, however, when the first IG product was approved for subcutaneous (SC) administration, patients have had a choice about how they received their treatments. Both products are considered equivalent in terms of efficacy, but there are lots of other factors that may make one preferable over the other. Providers usually have their own sense about how IG should be administered, but we asked IG users for their thoughts on the pros and cons of each option.

Convenience is the biggest factor in which route patients prefer. Ironically, both IV and SC users think their choice is most convenient.

Rebecca, for example, has been getting IVIG for 12 years after being diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). She speaks for many when she says, “I like that I only sacrifice one day every three weeks for treatment.”

The convenience of once-a-month infusions with IVIG comes at the expense of independence, though. IVIG poses higher risks, because it goes directly into the vein rather than under the skin. So it must be given under a nurse’s supervision, whether that is in the hospital, an infusion center, or at home. This means it also has to take place on a schedule that may not always be convenient.

Those who use SCIG usually take their infusions once a week rather than once every three to four weeks or so. Still they prefer the control they have over when they infuse, because they do it themselves. As Brandina, who has myasthenia gravis, says, “I love that I can administer it myself. The treatment days are flexible, and I can take the medication with me, so I don’t have to plan my vacation around treatments.”

Infusing once a week is also inconvenient for some SCIG users, but for most this is a minor drawback. As Jen, who has specific antibody deficiency, says, “I absolutely love SCIG. There are so many more pros that I could list and only this one con.”

Getting infusions at home, whether it is IV or SC, is also a convenience. This has become especially important since the COVID-19 pandemic has made it less desirable to go to a healthcare clinic. Brynne, whose six-year-old daughter uses IVIG for juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), was grateful when her overnight hospital infusions were changed to in-home infusions because of coronavirus restrictions.

Making the most of infusion time is something IVIG users have worked into their lives. Sitting in an infusion center or even hanging out at home with a nurse for six to eight hours or more can be a huge inconvenience, but it doesn’t have to be wasted time. Dana, who has dermatomyositis, likes IVIG, because it forces her to take time for herself and relax. And Robin, who has CVID, uses the time to crochet.

Mary, whose husband has myasthenia gravis (MG), prefers to get his IVIG at the hospital infusion center for other self-care reasons. “He loves the heated, vibrating recliner,” she says. “And they provide snacks and lunch.”

Adverse effects can be more of a problem with IVIG. In fact, this is often the reason patients switch to SCIG, which has far fewer reactions. Symptoms can range from fatigue, fever, flushing, chills, and ‘‘flu-like’’ symptoms to more life-threatening reactions like anaphylaxis (severe allergic reaction) and blood clots.

The most frequent side effect is headache, which can last several days and be more severe than a migraine. Some, like Lola, who has Sjögren’s syndrome, even get aseptic meningitis (inflammation of the membrane covering the brain) after infusions. This causes debilitating headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms.

Scar tissue and knots of fluid under the skin from subcutaneous infusions was a drawback for those using SCIG. These knots usually disappear within a few hours, though, and any redness or swelling at the injection site usually decreases over time.

Pain from being stuck with needles is not an insignificant side effect, regardless of whether it’s IV or SC. Whether it’s having to stick oneself multiple times or whether it’s having difficult-to-access veins, nobody likes to feel like a pincushion.

This can be especially challenging for children. Nancy’s nine-year-old daughter has JDM and receives IVIG at a pediatric infusion center. She says having ultrasound to find and insert the IV needle makes a world of difference for her daughter. Being spoiled by the nurses also takes some of the sting out of the whole ordeal.

Fluctuations in therapeutic effect is another reason many people switch to SCIG. An IG dose is mostly metabolized by the body over about 22 days, whether it’s given IV or SC. With IV infusion the dose reaches its peak immediately and dissipates over the next three to four weeks. This means that some patients will feel their symptoms returning as IG levels in the blood go down.

“As I got closer to my next treatment date, I would start to feel the effects of needing my next treatment,” says Karon, who has MG. “After I received it, I could tell I had just received a boost and had more energy.”

Giving IG under the skin makes the blood levels rise more slowly. And because SCIG is given more frequently—usually weekly—IG levels in the bloodstream fluctuate far less, so patients don’t feel that fatigue and other symptoms returning.

Whatever you decide about IG therapy, Lea, who has used IVIG for 22 years to treat CVID, offers this important advice: “You have to listen to your body and watch how it reacts to everything and try things until they work for you.”

For those who would like to learn more about IVIG or SCIG, please contact the CSI Pharmacy advocacy team at [email protected].